The purpose of this study is to determine whether body fat mass and fat distribution affect bone mineral density (BMD) and to examine the relationship among body fat distribution and total and regional BMD in children. Forty-three healthy elementary school children (30 boys, 13 girls) from Sports Talent Development Center, K University participated in this study. Total and regional BMD, fat mass and body fat distribution were obtained from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry total body scan. Total and regional BMD, fat mass, and fat distribution did not show significant differences in both genders. In boys, there was no significant relationship in fat mass and BMD. However, in girls, fat mass was significantly related to total BMD (r=0.812, p< 0.01), arm BMD (r=0.727, p< 0.01), leg BMD (r=0.890, p< 0.01), and spine BMD (r=0.755, p< 0.01). Fat mass had a positive relationship with total BMD and leg BMD in girls(ß-coefficient = 0.910, p=0.008 and ß-coefficient= 0.841, p=0.003, respectively). In girls, lean mass also had a positive relationship with total BMD (ß-coefficient = 0.529, p=0.039) but not in boys. Therefore, it seems that the contribution of fat distribution to BMD was higher in girls than in boys.