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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

문학교육학검색

KOREAN LITERATURE EDUCATION RESEARCH


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 기타제어문
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-487x
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 6권 0호 (2000)
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This study was designed to overview the present situation of literary education in Japan and to point out what should be done in the future literary education. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to examine and experience the Japanese school system for a few years. With the time limit, however, this study roughly examined the literary education in Japan by looking through the history of Japanese high school textbooks. There were two reasons that high school textbook was chosen to be the object of investigation: first, high school is in the level closest to that of university. Second, it has become almost obligatory to attend high school since 1974 (the year when the rate of entering high school was over 90%) although the present mandatory schooling of Japan is only 9 years (from the 6-year elementary school to the 3-year middle school). As everyone knows, the present Japanese school has the problem of Izimae (the phenomenon of excluding certain students from the peer group) and the breakdown of classroom. One of the cause of this problem is that the students do not have the capacity to interact with others, who are in the different position from them. This capacity can be cultivated by the appropriate education, Therefore, this study suggested the direction of the future literary education by presenting two literature classes of elementary school as the examples. The first class suggested is to make the anthologie of students own. In the beginning of this class, students select the stories and the poems they like most and make anthologies by reorganizing the selected stories and poems. After the students make their own anthologies, they talk about why they like the works they chose. This discussion broadens their thought to the outside of the stories and poems. The second class uses an illustrated book to educate students for the equality of the sexes. The contents of the book is like this: a girl who wants to be a princess passes many tests, but she gives up being a princess after she passes all the tests. The reason is that she realizes that the qualities she has to possess to be a princess are those which are required to be a suitable person for the prince. The teachers of elementary schools studies and teaches hard. The education of high school should follow the example of the education of elementary school to be a suitable education in the age of the 12-years of mandatory schooling.
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Since 1949 after the Kuomintang of China government moved to Taiwan, the literature education has been changed in contents and forms due to the influence from traditional literature, political situations, and social conditions. If we take a look at the change in contents and forms in literature education, though there has been continuous efforts and concern from the Taiwan government and people to develope literature education, it has not acquired good results. Literature education in Taiwan, which has been affected from tradition, continuous efforts for life, pursuit for independence, culture, politics, Taiwan spirits, is called a kind of peculiar `Taiwan Experience`, and various phenomena and subjects of it is noteworthy for people who is interested in literature education and researchers. The literature education in Taiwan can be divided into two. The one is education within the system and the other is that outside the system The first is the education of literary courses offered in schools and the second is the different kinds of literature education provided by the society. The new millennium is impending, while the aforementioned old factors of obstacles might not be fully exterminated Whereupon the various variables brought by the post-modern and the internet era are currently emerging endlessly, the literature in Taiwan will still facing many serious subjects. These will require the incessant effort in exploring the path of resolution.
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This paper is an attempt to provide a new methodology and theory in teaching Korean literature, esp. through modern poetry. I have proposed to use materials and contents from everyday life, through which learners will learn how to build up introspective and positive attitudes towards life. This orientation is significant in the aspect that it corresponds with the general objective of the Seventh Curriculum : that learners will learn how to enjoy reading and how to understand literature through stepwise and integrative learning and through the evaluation of students` performance. Such learning and teaching method places its emphasis not on the overall understanding of poetry on the part of learners, but on the general activities of making learned materials into one`s own mind and spirit, thus broadening one`s sphere of expression. This is not a one-way teaching where learners` individuality is ignored and as a result, learners learn only what is taught to them. It is rather a process of learning to search for one`s own world and its meaning and to be able to use them whenever and wherever needed Parallel to this, I have also proposed that the scope of materials should not. only be limited to printed materials of letters. Rather, they should be presented through diverse media of expression. I have studied how such a teaching method can be put into practice in poetry teaching and examined its practice and effects. For example, I have looked into the purpose and effects of teaching poetry by guessing the meanings of poems just from their titles or reading pxans as presented by different media. The use of diverse media in teaching and understanding poetry as well as creative activities like writing will help learners see, from many different aspects, the works and the world represented in the literature. Through this, learners will achieve highly developed language skills for creative thinking. In this stage, we should take into account the diversity of learner variables. Not to mention the complex Reception Theory, various stances towards literature works should be tolerated in teaching poetry. Especially, if one considers the two-sidedness of teaching poetry as feelings and cognition on the one hand, and theory and practice on the other, teaching literature should be widely open to the divergent attitudes of learners. In addition, learning as well as evaluation methods should be also discussed. It should also be kept in mind that teaching poetry or literature deals with works that are created by human beings just like any type of teaching. Also, because it deals with human beings and thus, a field of humanities, it is crucial to design the methodology to be learnercentered. Such an orientation is generally adapted to various kinds of teaching and learning objectives, but it is specifically of significant importance to teach the Korean language and literature with integrativeoriented teaching methods. This objective can be attained only in case teaching Korean literature and language seeks to cultivate creative thinking in learners. Every teaching method virtually reproduces the ideology of a certain nation. However, this can be challenged; teaching also has the objective to teach individuals how to think critically, which is what teaching poetry or literature can contribute to i.e. to the development of creative and critical thinking and to the mind. Lastly, because learners are in different phase of development and have their own interests, their experiences and thoughts are obviously different from one another. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the problem of systematization in designing the curricula for high-level learners as well as in determining specific materials for poems or methods to provide learners with appropriate learning levels.
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The purpose of research in Korean classical literature has been to explore the historical and modern meaning of Korean classical resources and establish research methodology of Korean Studies. Recent crisis in the Humanities, however, makes it difficult to research classical literature and, therefore, education itself has been put into danger of losing its purpose. The purpose of education of classical literature should be to encourage the development of human nature. That is, education of classics should enable students to develop critical intelligence, independent thinking and refined sense. Education of classical literature needs to approach and study in diversified ways the fact that classical literature are great art works and to make the research outcomes known in the educational field. Current and educational value of classical literature can be summarized as follows: (1) Artistic structures and styles of classical literature are various so that its education can become a basis of effective reference for future development of literature and arts. (2) Classical literature as well as literature in general have been written on the base of imagination and its education has a function of developing independent human thinking. (3) Classical literature have participated, both directly and indirectly, in social reforms from diverse perspectives. Understanding its tradition helps students comprehend the unique function of literature and eventually develop certain guidelines for appreciating and producing literature. (4) Classical literature contain national emotions and ideas and reflect historical experiences, ideas and emotions that Koreans have commonly had before the division of North and South. Education of classical literatures, therefore, can become a powerful reference when we try to overcome cultural differences between the North and the South and reinstate unified thinking and emotions. (5) There are very many works in which a question of the human existence has been dealt. Education can help students obtain a critical point of view that makes them question the way of their own existence. Current education of classical literature has several problems: (1) Education and research have never been separate. It should be reexamined whether the results of research in classical literature are as important as in education. (2) The goal of education of classical literature has not been so clear that its educational value has never been fully converged. (3) The importance of appreciation which should be the core of education of classical literature works has not been properly emphasized in the educational field. (4) There has been lack of comprehensive knowledge and information about diverse characteristics of classical literature works. (5) It has not been well recognized that texts have varied dependent upon the development of various media. (6) Emphasis on coarse reading of textbook in classroom has not been directed toward close reading of classical literature works. (7) Students are educated to accept the characteristics of a genre of classical literature only as knowledge, but not to fully comprehend their attributes. (8) There is lack of recognition about the position of classical literature in traditional arts so that comprehensive information about the relation between classical literature and other fields of arts has not been properly provided. There are several suggestions about how to change and improve the education of classical literature: (1) The method of reading should be reeducated. Reading of classical literature should be directed to help students as independent readers grasp the value and meaning of classical literature. (2) Research in classical literature should be diversified and refined so as to fulfill the contents of education. (3) Classical ideology of human life and behavior that appeared in classical literature should be explored and related to the pursuit of happiness in modern
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We know that life is social and historical. So, understanding of literature is a prelude of going the larger world. In this point, I want to say like this : literature education in modern age must be a self-realization. But literature has diverse meaning. We Knows that most literature work can`t have educational element. Education emphasize student`s innate ability, and what he learned from society. We can`t say that what students have is wholly reasonable. So literature education must be like this : we have to use all kinds of literature, modern and classic, Western and Eastern. In this point, I say that the percent of modern literature in literature education is too high. And we have to interpretate these works in new perspective. Most of all, new interpretation of classics in modernized perspective. But, I think it will be very difficult. To construct a new educational program will be more difficult. We need long time to perform this project. But it is very important that we certificate the important of this effort.
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The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the characteristic of literary education of Chosun race in China. After emancipation, there were six periods in Chosun language education, especially in secondary school education. In first period(1949∼1956), chosen literary text had shown a tendency toward socialism. In second(1956∼1958), language education was teached as being seperated, grammar and literature. That days, literary education focused on national consciousness. In third(1958∼1960) and fifth(1966∼1976), China government policies about minority were firm, so Chosun language education was withering. In fourth(1961∼66) and sixth(1976∼), what withered was recovered. As you know, China government policies about minority and Chosun language education have much relationship. Literary education is national education and constructing syllabus, collecting and selecting literary text is important. Education through literature of Chosun race after emancipation is important also.
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